Space...the final Frontier

satanboy

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Amazing illustration of the size of our star king compared to other stellar bodies.

The Sun is a complex and exciting body that was born approximately 4.6 billion years ago
- The diameter of the Sun reaches 1,392,684 kilometers (and a radius of about 696,342 kilometers). about 100 times more than the mass of the earth.
- Sirius, about 2,200,000 km
- Pollux, approximately 9,000,000 km (8 to 9 times the solar diameter)
- Arturo, approx. 22,132,000 km (15.9 soles)
- Aldebarán, of approx. 34,800,000 km (about 25 soles)
- Rigel, about 98,000,000 km (about 70 soles)
- Betelgeuse, approx. 850,000,000 km (about 650 soles)
- Antares, of approx. 975,000,000 km (about 700 soles)
- Star Gun: 425,000,000 km
Shine as much as 10 million Suns
By a strange coincidence, the diameter of Antares is about a million times that of Ceres.
- KW sagitari
a distance of 9800 light-years from the Sun.
its diameter 1460 times that of the sun
- V354 Cephei is a red hypergiant star located in the Milky Way. It is located approximately 9000 light-years from our Sun and is currently considered the fifth of the largest known stars, with a diameter 1520 times that of the Sun. If it were placed in the center of our Solar System, it would extend so much that its surface would be between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn.
- This hypergiant and red star is the main star of the VV Cephei eclipsing binary star system (a pair of stars that orbit around its mean center of masses, where the plane of the orbit coincides with the line of sight of the observer), located in the constellation Cepheus 2400 light-years from Earth and has a radius of 1,600-1,900 solar radii.
VV Cephei is located at a distance of 3000 light-years (approx)
Absolute magnitude (M V) −6.93
it is the largest known star. It is so large that if we placed it in the place of the Sun, it would extend beyond the orbit of Saturn.

Kleper Observatory
 

Nicholas

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Star Gun = The Pistol Star?

I've read that UY Scuti and VY Canis Majoris are also monstrously big.
 
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satanboy

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Ganymede is the largest and most massive moon in the Solar System. Its diameter of 5,268 km is 0.41 times that of Earth, 0.77 times that of Mars, 1.02 times that of Saturn's Titan (Solar System's second largest moon), 1.08 times Mercury's, 1.09 times Callisto's, 1.45 times Io's and 1.51 times the Moon's.
 

satanboy

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(Image: Reproduction/International Gemini Observatory/ NOIRLab/ NSF/ AURA/ NASA/ ESA/ M.H. Wong/ I. de Pater (UC Berkeley) et al.)

Scientists are beginning to piece together all of these puzzle pieces of Jupiter's dense atmosphere to better understand how things are inside, below the visible layer, always photographed by NASA's Juno spacecraft. That means we're about to see how this atmosphere works, in 3D! Among the findings is the fact that the Great Red Spot is deeper than expected — it reaches 500 km below the cloud tops. Also, it seems to be related to jets that go even deeper. This suggests that the planet's upper and lower atmospheres are linked together.
 

satanboy

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(Image: Reproduction/Tom Abel & Ralf Kaehler (KIPAC, SLAC), AMNH)

Several million years after the Big Bang, the first stars formed and gave rise to galaxies, which began to cluster into clusters. These structures, made of galaxies and the material between them, also gave rise to planets orbiting stars, as occurs in the Solar System. So many galaxies and clusters are held together thanks to gravity, which acts as a “glue”. However, by measuring the gases present in the medium between some clusters, scientists have discovered that there must be at least five times more matter there than is currently detectable. For this invisible matter is the “dark matter”.
The map was produced from detailed computer simulations, resulting in a representation of complex filaments of dark matter (in black), stretching across the universe as if they were spider webs, accompanied by clumps of baryonic matter (in orange), that formed by protons, neutrons and electrons. Simulations like this work as good statistical counterparts to astronomical observations, but the issue can be even more complex: while dark matter remains a mystery to scientists, dark energy is considered the main force that appears to dominate the expansion of the universe.
 

satanboy

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UY Scuti

Catalogued in 1860 by astronomers at the Bonn Observatory under the name BD - 12 5055 and properly measured in 2012, UY Scuti lies in the constellation Scutum, approximately at the center of the Milky Way, about 9,500 light-years from Earth. It is estimated to have a radius that is equivalent to approximately 1,708 solar rays, which means that if it were placed in the center of the Solar System, it would occupy all the space from the Sun to the region beyond the orbit of Jupiter.

Also considering the gas nebula around the star, the space occupied by it would reach Pluto's orbit region, which is 400 times farther from the Sun than Earth. The measurement is not exact because there is a difficulty in measuring stars.

According to astronomer Jillian Scudder, who explained the situation to Space.com, they don't have sharp edges, making it tricky to determine where they actually start and end. Thus, the margin of error for measuring the UY Scuti is 192 sun rays, which means that it can measure from 1,516 to 1,900 sun rays.

Thus, despite officially holding the title of biggest star — which was formerly VY Canis Majoris (1,300 to 1,540 sun rays), it may be smaller than stars like WOH G64 (1,504 to 1,730 sun rays) and RW Cephei ( 1,535 solar rays). In addition, there are stars whose size needs to be confirmed, such as Westerlund 1-26 and KY Cygni, and which can dethrone the UY Scuti, as they measure up to 2,000 solar rays. It is also necessary to consider that there are other ways to measure stars, such as brightness or mass, and that, in these aspects, the UY Scuti does not occupy the first place.
 

Nicholas

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View attachment 29836
(Image: Reproduction/Tom Abel & Ralf Kaehler (KIPAC, SLAC), AMNH)

Several million years after the Big Bang, the first stars formed and gave rise to galaxies, which began to cluster into clusters. These structures, made of galaxies and the material between them, also gave rise to planets orbiting stars, as occurs in the Solar System. So many galaxies and clusters are held together thanks to gravity, which acts as a “glue”. However, by measuring the gases present in the medium between some clusters, scientists have discovered that there must be at least five times more matter there than is currently detectable. For this invisible matter is the “dark matter”.
The map was produced from detailed computer simulations, resulting in a representation of complex filaments of dark matter (in black), stretching across the universe as if they were spider webs, accompanied by clumps of baryonic matter (in orange), that formed by protons, neutrons and electrons. Simulations like this work as good statistical counterparts to astronomical observations, but the issue can be even more complex: while dark matter remains a mystery to scientists, dark energy is considered the main force that appears to dominate the expansion of the universe.
This reminds me of the wrinkles in crumpled up aluminium foil.
 

Nicholas

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View attachment 29609
Amazing illustration of the size of our star king compared to other stellar bodies.

The Sun is a complex and exciting body that was born approximately 4.6 billion years ago
- The diameter of the Sun reaches 1,392,684 kilometers (and a radius of about 696,342 kilometers). about 100 times more than the mass of the earth.
- Sirius, about 2,200,000 km
- Pollux, approximately 9,000,000 km (8 to 9 times the solar diameter)
- Arturo, approx. 22,132,000 km (15.9 soles)
- Aldebarán, of approx. 34,800,000 km (about 25 soles)
- Rigel, about 98,000,000 km (about 70 soles)
- Betelgeuse, approx. 850,000,000 km (about 650 soles)
- Antares, of approx. 975,000,000 km (about 700 soles)
- Star Gun: 425,000,000 km
Shine as much as 10 million Suns
By a strange coincidence, the diameter of Antares is about a million times that of Ceres.
- KW sagitari
a distance of 9800 light-years from the Sun.
its diameter 1460 times that of the sun
- V354 Cephei is a red hypergiant star located in the Milky Way. It is located approximately 9000 light-years from our Sun and is currently considered the fifth of the largest known stars, with a diameter 1520 times that of the Sun. If it were placed in the center of our Solar System, it would extend so much that its surface would be between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn.
- This hypergiant and red star is the main star of the VV Cephei eclipsing binary star system (a pair of stars that orbit around its mean center of masses, where the plane of the orbit coincides with the line of sight of the observer), located in the constellation Cepheus 2400 light-years from Earth and has a radius of 1,600-1,900 solar radii.
VV Cephei is located at a distance of 3000 light-years (approx)
Absolute magnitude (M V) −6.93
it is the largest known star. It is so large that if we placed it in the place of the Sun, it would extend beyond the orbit of Saturn.

Kleper Observatory
I remember artists' renditions of Antares and Betelguese as the most gigantic of stars in the astronomy books I read in the 1980s.
 

satanboy

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Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are bright pulses of emission at radio wavelengths (seen mostly at wavelengths of tens of centimeters) whose physical mechanism(s) are mysterious. The bursts last between hundredths of a millisecond to a few milliseconds, and none of them has been associated with a specific source, even though thousands of FRBs have been detected since the first one was spotted fourteen years ago. Equally puzzling is the fact that most FRBs do not repeat, one of the reasons why follow-up observations to identify the originating sources are so difficult. Nevertheless, a small minority of FRBs do repeat, and four of these "repeaters" have been found to originate within host galaxies whose environments include modest star formation, possibly a clue to the nature
 

w1z4rd

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Imagine how many planets those really big stars must having orbiting around them. Tens of thousands? More?
 

satanboy

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Scientists recently added a whopping 301 newly validated exoplanets to the total exoplanet tally. The throng of planets is the latest to join the 4,569 already validated planets orbiting a multitude of distant stars. How did scientists discover such a huge number of planets, seemingly all at once? The answer lies with a new deep neural network called ExoMiner.
 
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